'The language-games played in design-by-doing can be viewed both from the point of view of the users and the designers. This kind of design becomes a language-game in which the users learn about possibilities and constraints of computer artifacts that may become part of their ordinary language-games.The designers become the teachers that teach the users how to participate in this particular language-game of design. In order to set up these kind of language-games the designers have to learn from the users.

However, paradoxical as it sounds, users and designers do not really have to understand each other in playing language-games of design-by-doing together. Participation in a language-game of design and the use of design artifacts can make constructive but different sense, to users and designers'

(Pelle Ehn - 'Work-Oriented Design of Computer Artifacts')